Jumaat, Ogos 31, 2012

Sweet: Astronomers find Sugar floating in Space, proving that Building blocks of life can exist without a Planet

Next time you make a sweet cup of tea, remind yourself how fundamental sugar is to life on this planet...And that humble sweetener has played an even greater role in humanity's quest for knowledge this week, after astronomers announced that 'sugar' has been found floating freely in space.
The simple molecules were spotted floating in the gas cloud around a star around 400 light-years away.

The discovery suggests the possibility of life on other planets, as not only is this the first time that sugar has been spotted in space, but it is the first example of carbon-rich molecules being present before even planets exist.

Naturally, this is not the granular sugar that you find in white packets in supermarkets, but organic carbohydrates molecules, made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

The molecules, called glycoaldehyde, are the simplest of sugar molecules, and can be found on earth in the form of an oderless white powder.

Scientists believe the molecule plays a fundamental role in the chemical reactions that create ribonucleic acid (RNA), one of the most crucial molecules present in living cells.
The team of astronomers led by researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute, in Copenhagen, observed star 'Rho Ophiuch' with the new large international telescope, Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in northern Chile.

alma array telescopesable zoom portionssky get greater detail

The ALMA telescopes are able to zoom in and study the details of newly formed stars and their rotating discs of dust and gas, which subsequently clumps together and forms planets.

Among other things, the astronomers would like to investigate the gas for the presence of water vapour and examine the chemical composition for complex molecules.

Astrophysicist Jes Jørgensen, an associate professor at the Niels Bohr Institute, said: 'In the protoplanetary disc of gas and dust surrounding the young, newly formed star, we found glycolaldehyde molecules, which are a simple form of sugar. 

It is one of the building blocks in the process that leads to the formation of RNA and the first step in the direction of biology.'

He said that at first the gas and dust cloud is extremely cold - only around 10 degrees above absolute zero at minus 273C - and simple gases such as carbon monoxide and methane settle on particles of dust and solidify as ice.

Here on the particles of dust, the otherwise volatile gases come close to each other and can bond together and form more complex molecules.

When the star has been formed in the middle of the gas and dust cloud, it emits heat, and the inner parts of the rotating cloud surrounding the star is heated to around room temperature, after which the chemically complex molecules on the particles of dust evaporate as gas.

This gas emits radiation as radio waves at low frequencies and it is this radiation that researchers can observe with the ALMA telescopes.

The star is located only 400 light years from us so, seen in an astronomical context, it is right in our own neighbourhood.

With the very high resolution of the new telescopes, researchers now have the opportunity to study the details of the dust and gas clouds, and in addition to the sugar molecules the researchers also saw signs of a number of other complex organic molecules, including ethylene-glycol, methyl-formate and ethanol.

Jørgensen said: 'The complex molecules in the cloud surrounding the newly formed star tell us that the building blocks of life may be among the first formed. 

One of the big questions is whether it is common that these organic molecules are formed so early in the star and planet formation process and how complex they can become before they are incorporated into new planets.

'This could potentially tell us something about the possibility that life might arise elsewhere and whether precursors to biology are already present before the planets have been formed.'

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